Response 1: The Popular Front Movement
The Popular Front Movement was a movement between the 1930s and 1940s. It refers to the alliance of the socialists, communists as well as liberals and conservatives as a forum to fight against the ideology of fascism. The movement, therefore, was used to shape the history of Europe and America, in which the ideologies of communism and the communist party were propagated. The Popular Front, therefore, was a progressive movement that campaigned against the ideology of fascism (Goldman 12).
Although the Popular Front Movement was formed to deal with the crisis of capitalism, it revolutionized into a dominant method that was used by the communist politics to criticize countries that practiced capitalism. The movement, therefore, had a tremendous influence on the politics that shaped major parties in Europe and the United States.
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Several American radical thoughts during the Popular Front Movement of the 1930s and 1940’s were appropriately captured in various artistic forms such as song, film, literature, photography, and mural by various artists. The Popular Front Movement had a great influence on the type of literature that was written and artistic forms produced during this time. The artist captured themes that touched on the adverse effects of capitalism that was being practiced by rich nations. Capitalism had subjected poor nations to untold suffering. Another thematic concern was fascism. The ideology of fascism had adversely affected many countries for a long time. The rise of Fascism motivated the artists to unite in the fight against a common enemy - fascism that had caused unrivaled suffering to people in various countries in Europe and the United States. Support for social justice was equally a predominant theme where artists emphasized on equal treatment of people without any form of discrimination and extension of opportunities to all people.
The participation of the artists in highlighting these issues had cultural significance. Artists always capture social, economic religious and political issues that affect humankind. They, therefore, use their various forms of art as a way to illustrate what is prevalent in their immediate environment. The artists of the period of Popular Front Movement were used as a vessel to condemn social and political evils. They spread ideologies that were considered popular among the people. They used their creativity to capture the ideologies as propagated by the Popular Front Movement. The American Artist Congress - an organization, formed in the United States in 1936 was determined to champion the ideas of the Popular Front Movement. The various artists, therefore, would use graphic art, drawings, and paintings to mitigate the spread of the ideologies of Fascism.
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The Popular Front Movement became a strategy and a political outfit that its proponents used to condemn the excesses of the dictatorial governments and the fascist ideology, too. The movement was a wake-up call to nations to rise and oppose the excesses in the political and economic landscape during the period of the years 1930-1940 (Reed 21).
Response: The Black Power Movement
The Black Power Movement was a name used to describe various ideologies in the United States that were deliberately tailored to achieve the emancipation and self-determination of the African Americans. The movement was spearheaded by African Americans in the years ranging from late 1960’s to early 1970’s. It is undeniable that the Black Power Movement had legitimate reasons to protect themselves from the adverse effects of the racial discrimination in America (Lenin 7).
The movement took pride in the emancipation of the African Americans from the repressive rules and racial discrimination. The movement campaigned for the creation of a political party led by the blacks and creation of cultural institutions that would nurture and equally promote the collective values and interests of the black population in the United States.
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The Black Movement, therefore, was used as a vehicle to express a variety of political goals and dissatisfactions by the way they were being treated by their white counterparts. Their movement was, therefore, justified to campaign for their various concerns because it was the only way they would defend themselves from the humiliating and discriminatory racial stereotypes. The African Americans were determined to reclaim their rightful position in the social, political, cultural and economic landscape of the United States. They equally wanted to be self-empowered through the establishment of social institution as well as a self-sufficient economy (Bethesda 2).
The movement has been condemned as an entity that was characterized by chaos and portrayed as a movement that was used by the black population in America to regain their freedom. It is evident that the Black people in America were subjected to untold suffering and discrimination because of the color of their skin. Therefore, the Black Movement was their only option at their disposal they would use to realize their freedom (Davis 5).
While the Black Movement resorted to the use of violence to achieve their objective, Civil Rights Movements embraced the use of the nonviolent method to reclaim African freedoms. The youths were, therefore, impatient with the approach that had been adopted by Civil Rights Movement like Martin Luther King Junior in response to the injustices that had been meted on the Blacks in the American society. The Black Power Movement and the subsequent protests, as well as its influence, would be felt in other sectors like sports.
One major proponent of the Black Power Movement was Newton Huey who spearheaded the formation of a political outfit. Under his leadership and that of Bobby Seale, they formed the Black Panther party. The party resolved to use violence against the whites and the authorities to seek justice for the African Americans.
Shirley Chisholm was also another dedicated member of the Black Power Movement. He was among a new generation of positive figures who religiously embraced the ideals of the Black Movement. He went farther to run for the presidency in 1972. The position taken by the proponents of the Black Movement was justified especially on the issue of political representation. The political atmosphere during the years of 1960’s saw African Americans being discriminated upon and could not be empowered to run for political offices. The decision to run for elective posts was only realized after the violent protests that were spearheaded by the supporters of black movements.
The proponents of Black Power Movement as already outlined were dissatisfied with the approach used by other civil rights activists to champion for the emancipation of African Americans. Therefore, the violent approach they used was justified. It was the only way they could agitate against racial discrimination and other forms of oppression.
Response 3: Earth Liberation Front
The Movement Earth Liberation Front (ELF) was founded in Brighton, England in 1994 by the members of the Erath First Environment Movement. The movement refers to the autonomous entities who deliberately engage in economic sabotage and use of the infamous guerrilla warfare to stop the blatant destruction of the environment. The Earth Liberation Movement is, therefore, an outfit that endeavors to stop the malicious exploitation and destruction of the environment (Engdahl 4)
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After its inception in Brighton in England, it spread to other countries. Currently, the movement has spread to the in European states and other parts of the world. The ideologies of Earth Liberation Movement are closely linked with those of the Animal Liberation Movement. The supporters of the movement argue that its major objective is to cushion the environment from destruction by unscrupulous people and businesses.
The Federal Bureau of Statistics classifies the Earth Liberation Movement as a domestic terror group that poses a security threat to the United States. The members who subscribe to the ideals of Earth Liberation Front have engaged in the malicious destruction of homes as well as other property that has caused a lot of economic losses to American people. The activities of this movement are similar to other terrorists. Their strategy is deliberately tailored to protect the environment through destruction of property (Engdahl 3)
The supporters of the movement are individual cells, and they pride themselves to belonging to the organization. They embrace the Marxist ideology that people are not supposed to own property. It is the motivation behind their illegal activities of burning people property and homes. The sympathizers of Earth Liberation Movement have little respect for laws that allow people to own property. Just like the Marxists, the proponents of the Earth Liberation Movement are against capitalism. They, therefore, do not acknowledge the idea that people have the right to own property.
The Earth Liberation Front is determined to oppose any effort where individuals remove a tree or other natural habits to be replaced with a building, fence or house. They perpetuate the idea that the natural environment should be preserved as it is without being destroyed.
Due to increased cases of terrorism around the world, where many people have been injured and the property destroyed, the Earth Liberation Movement has received a lot of attention because of their terrorist-like activities. Therefore, major countries like the USA have enforced a blanket condemnation approach to eliminate the sympathizers of the movement. The group has in the past equally been linked to some terrorist attacks where the property in millions of US dollars was destroyed.
As already stipulated, the Earth Liberation Front has an international presence in various countries all over the world. Its major strategy is the use of direct action against people or institutions that they think pose a threat to the environment. The group, therefore, sabotages corporations as well as government agencies that make profits from destroying the natural environment.
Response 4: Anti-Globalization Movement
Anti-Globalization Movement was a progressive social movement that was crafted to criticize globalization that had resulted into capitalism. Many activists during of this period wanted a democratic society that would guarantee equality in different aspects such as economic, environmental, as well as political landscape. The supporters of this movement believed that a few powerful countries were using their influence to enrich themselves selfishly at the expense of other needy nations and people. The various movements that were spearheaded by the activists were part and parcel of the larger campaign by the Anti-Globalization Movement that wanted justice to be extended to all people.
The proponents of the Anti-Globalization Movement opposed the idea that wealth should land in the hands of a few rich people while large percentages of the population lived in abject poverty. The movement also wanted equal rights for all human beings. Cases of discrimination at various levels and denial of opportunities to particular classes of people were vehemently opposed by the movement (Perry 3).
The movement was uncomfortable with the fact that the workers and employees who worked in industries were being subjected to deplorable working conditions with meager pay. The safety of the workers in the factories was not guaranteed. Equally, the working conditions were deplorable. Companies were more concerned with profits than the welfare of the human personnel. All these factors led to immense activism that criticized the actions of the capitalistic governments (Friedan 8).
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Many activists who supported anti-globalization ideologies wanted a society where democratic representation would be realized without bias. They advocated for respect of human rights as well as sustainable development and fair trade. The issues that the movement dealt with were of global significance. It is undeniable that the activism that characterized the Anti-Globalization movement culminated in the rise of neoliberalism in the United States. Neoliberalism involved empowerment of the people through the adoption of democratic principles. The immense activism in the economic sphere, political sphere, and human rights led the United States to enact policies that would empower people in a various way. Racial discrimination ceased, all people started owning private property, and the basic rights of all people were given priority.
It is evident that the Anti-Globalization Movement that began in the 1990s and later spread to the early 21st century was a major coalition between radical environmentalists and anti-capitalists that also advocated for the rights of people of color. It greatly transformed the world’s core areas that affected the humankind all over the world.