Before the Independence of America, several movements and activists had contributed to changing the nation. The blacks had fought for freedom of slavery, while the indigenous Americans had struggled for their liberty. This paper discusses the contribution of several activists and philosophers towards independence as well as the problems encountered by women in their contribution to the end of slavery.
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How Racism and Sexism Affected the Womens Rights Movement
The match to Washington was a landmark of the Civil Rights Movement. Lots of US citizens from different races came together to protest against racial inequality that had prevailed in the country. The prominent speakers like Martin Luther King made a great impact on the Americans. The US had been challenged to think about the countrys future in the absence of racial inequality. As Martin and other speakers voice became more outstanding, there was a certain group being unheard. Despite their protests to bring equality, the womens voice diminished. They did not have a chance to directly take part in the match.
Black women played an important role in the movement. However, their efforts were not recognized. When the Southern Christian Leadership (SCLC) was scheduled to take place, females showed their concern for their visibility in the movement. The women were also a part of the National Council of Negro Women, an influential organization of the Civil Rights Movement. It was active after the assassination of Medgar Evers, a civil rights' activist. The female leaders, Anna Hedgeman and Dorothy Height (the members of the Council of Negro), aired their worries on the womens participation in the Movement. They discussed the issue with Bayard Rustin of the SCLC, who responded the females were represented in the match by virtue of their participation.
Women were expected to keep calm and not to raise their voices louder that they had already done. Their participation in the Movement was limited. Whenever females raised some gender-related questions, men felt intimidated. They saw them as sidetracking. They were seen to be making the insignificant fuss since the movement had been more of a racism fight and not sexism. The males retorted by saying that they just needed the voice of at least one female (Burin, 2008).
Racism and Sexism in the Radical Labor Movement of the Late Nineteenth Century
Black women served in the local communities; they mobilized people to join the Movement. Their efforts were supportive to this fight. Without them, it would not have been as strong as it was. Moreover, they mobilized the Movements capital. The knowledgeable female leaders recognized the importance of their representation in the fight. Height and Arnold were very disappointed when Rustin gave them a minimal representation in the match. Rustin told them that the recognition of Mahalia Jackson was enough. Therefore, it was not necessary to recognize more women. He presumed that Jackson had acted as a representative of thousands of women.
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Women's Role in the Antislavery Movement in the Years Around 1840
In several economies, women exercised their voting rights. However, after 1776, they were denied that liberty and could only vote in New Jersey until their suffrage was outlawed by male legislators in 1807. In the 1830s, females got involved in the trade abolition movements. They expressed their hatred for slavery through some articles in the abolitionist papers. Several of them became the leaders of the Movement such as Sarah Moore and Angelina Grimke, who conducted rallies and sensitized the audience to stop slavery. Their radical actions were strongly condemned by clergymen. Consequently, these two female leaders started to advocate for the rights of all women. They lured others in the Movement and encouraged them to fight for their rights as a weak sex.
Within the movement, females would face discrimination and made them more vibrant to campaign for their rights. They influenced those women who worked to free the African Americans to follow their suit. Moreover, they began to compare themselves with the Anglo women and could notice the similarities. With some time, the female rights activists were expanding.
In 1840, during the World Anti-slavery Convention, those who attended included abolitionists Lucretia and Elizabeth Cady. The activists refused to give them seats because they were women. As a result, Elizabeth and Lucretia held a convention on their rights. It was Elizabeths strategic position and her ethical position to sensitize other women on their rights.
The Dispute over the 14th and 15th Amendments to the US Constitution
Many years ago, 400 women and some men flocked the Seneca Falls Convention to advocate for the rights of females. They signed a resolution that supported the rights of women to vote. The 14th Amendment did not grant them voting liberties. The 15th Amendment became law in 1989 and declared the rights to vote for everyone of any race or color in the US (Fast, 2008). However, the liberty did not cover women. The leaders like Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton opposed the Amendment for leaving behind females. They formed the National Women Suffrage Association that advocated for the reformed Amendment. Lucy Stone formed another movement known as the American Woman Suffrage Association. It aimed to grant voting rights at the state level. In spite of their efforts the Amendment was ratified and became law. Elizabeths ethical position was in opposing it; and her ethical view was on signing the resolution.
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Religion in Tom Paine and the American Revolution
Tom Paine was born in England; he was a philosopher and writer. He shaped the ideas of the Revolution Age. His father's religion influenced his humanitarianism. Moreover, he was interested in Newtonian science which made him hate hereditary governments. He published Common Sense, which was a mixture of politics and religion. It was a sufficient persuasion for men and women who were still doubting if to fight for independence. The book religiously appealed that moved the Americans into a political action. With this pamphlet with his other writings, Paine encouraged US citizens to think freely and stand up for their ideas. He strongly expressed his belief that all people were equal and should have been free.
Role of Religion in Nat Turners Rebellion
Nat Turner was the leader of the slave rebellion, which took place in the year 1831. As he grew, he got deeply involved in religion. He preached to the slaves and talked to them about the visions he had seen. He had a good reputation before his masters. Nat diligently performed his tasks. His character made him organize his campaigns in a silent way that his slave owners could not get to know. His master allowed him to hold unsupervised church meetings because of his impeccable behavior. Nat was his owner's favorite slave and was completely trusted (Stanton & Ladd, 2001). Through the meeting, Turner got to explain his beliefs and the visions of those slaves who were willing to join him in the revolt.
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When he worked for the plantation owner, Joseph Travis, the suns eclipse convinced him to start the journey of leading people out of slavery. From there, he planned the uprising in July, which failed. Later on, he organized another one in August after the other sign from God. The rebellion sparked on 21 August. He killed Joseph with his family with the help of other slaves. The group was armed with axes, knives, and hatchets (Baker, 2015). They campaigned on the countryside and picked up slaves as they were moving on. Many participants escaped, and Turner led them along Southampton to Jerusalem where they decided to seize the armory. They killed the whites they met on their way and trampled on those who tried to run away with horses. Among them, there was a feeling of mistreatment which made them ready to kill any white; being women and men, both young and adults. At the end of their campaign, 55 whites were dead. Outside Jerusalem, the band was seized by the army; and some of its members were killed. The campaign ended after having awakened the slaves to fight for their freedom (Gray, 1983). This religious-triggered campaign failed. However, other slaves from other regions might have seen the signs he had seen and more rebellions were expected.
Role of Religion in the 19th-Century Movement of Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton's attention was diverted towards religion. Her youthful experiences made her hate religious thoughts. The civil rights activist criticized the contribution of the Christian churches to women's oppression. She went ahead and published the Womans Bible. When Stanton visited England, she was initiated by such great thinkers like Wilhelm Martin, Johann Eichhorn, and Julius Wellhausen. She learned of the attempts of Christian political activists to alter divorce law liberalization, close public schools on Sabbath, and transform Christianity as the main religion in the state (Smith, 1930). The activist felt it was not right and began to oppose them. As a result, Stanton got in collision with suffrage leaders of the Woman's Temperance Union.
She got the idea of critically examining the Bible and finding out its implications and shortcomings in comparison to females. She published the Woman's Bible, a two-part non-fiction book that led to her censorship by the National American Woman Suffrage Association. This edition comprised of the essays by intellectual females who observed the in-depth state of women in the US. She went through some scriptures about the weak sex such as the story of the Garden of Eden. Therefore, she pointed out where she thought to be true or false.