Animal testing and experiments are performed to understand the positive and negative effects of medicines, biomedical research, and new drugs. Also, such studies help researchers to gain an insight into the developmental biology of animals and human beings. Moreover, such animal testing is performed to determine the toxicology of different cosmetic products (Murnaghan, 2013). The following paper analyzes animal testing processes and their regulations. Also, it illustrates the positive outcomes of animal testing process.
Experts are using different animals for scientific research for a long time. Most of the experiments are performed on invertebrate animals. These animals include mice, frogs, birds, and rats. However, different laboratories use different animals to perform their scientific experiments. These animals are caught by the suppliers or purposely bred by the experts. Moreover, some organizations oppose animal testing. However, other renowned organizations support this process. For example, the British Royal Society has claimed that in the 21st century, most of the medicines become successful due to the application of various animal testing processes. In addition, the U.S. scientific research organizations have informed that animals are the best option to conduct medical experiment. They claimed that even sophisticated computers cannot provide correct information about different organs, cell, tissue, or molecule. Furthermore, they proved that human diseases and environmental issues made animal experiments necessary in different areas of science (Animal Testing, n.d.).
History of Animal Testing
In the past, Greeks and Romans started to use animals for testing. Initially, they used pigs and goats for medical experiments. Moreover, in the 12th century, Arabic physicians used animal testing methods to understand the effects of or reactions to medicines that were created for people. In the late 19th century, scientists invented different medicines for human treatment. Initially, all of these medicines were tried on animals and showed a successful result in curing various diseases. For example, Louis Pasteur performed different experiments on sheep and developed germ theory. Also, the revolutionary treatment of diabetes was first experimented on dogs; as a result, scientists invented insulin, which helps people to get rid of diabetes. In addition, vaccines and antibiotic treatments were initially used on animals and then human beings. Thus, leprosy vaccinations became successful in the late 20th century. Furthermore, in 1974, animal testing helped to produce transgenic mammals. Rudolf Jaenisch integrated DNA from SV40 viruses and created such mammals. Nevertheless, the genetic research developed rapidly, and in 1996, scientists created the first cloned sheep called Dolly (Animal Testing, n.d.).
In the late 19th century, hundreds of people died by using toxic drugs. Hence, in the early 20th century, government issued laws to test drugs on animals before using it on the human being. For example, in 1937, about 150 people died by using eponymous drugs. Thus, the U.S. Congress passed different safety laws to test drugs on animals before they could be sold in markets.
In the late 20th century, animal testing became quite popular in different drug laboratories. However, some people opposed such experiments. They believe that these experiments are the cruelties in relation to innocent animals. In contrast, experts argued that animal testing is necessary to improve or advance biological knowledge and medical technologies. Also, they claimed that the effects of medicines on mammals are almost similar to those on the mankind; thus, animal experiments help to save human life (Animal Testing, n.d.).
Analysis of Animal Testing
Animal testing plays an important role in people’s life. In the 21st century, different antibiotics, organ transplantation technologies, chemotherapy, bypass surgeries, and blood transplantation procedures are applied to the human body. All these technologies become successful due to the application of animal testing procedures. Most of these medical technologies are highly valuable for human body and help people to get rid of illness in a short time. However, experts must test these technologies on animals before they introduce them to the market. Also, they must pass rules and certification that allow using such medications. Studies show that the application of unknown drugs can cause serious harm to the human body. Different animal lover communities oppose animal testing procedures. They believe that it is cruel and painful for animals. For example, the famous animal right organization, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), has already organized different demonstrations and programs that oppose animal testing. However, scientific research organizations have proved that most of the lab animals are specially-bred for experiments, like mice and rats. Also, they use specially bred different Guinea pigs, sea snails, rabbits, and pigs for their experiments (Trull, n.d.).
Often, research experts use rodents for their experiments. Usually, these animals have a short life. An average rodent lives from two to three years. Thus, scientists can test different drugs during their life span and get successful results in a short time. Such techniques help researchers to identify the main causes and stages of a disease as well as a quick solutions. In addition, advanced genetic science helps experts to create excellent rodents for research. For example, they use disabled or added genes of mice to understand the cause of cancer, memory loss, spinal cord problems, lung or heart diseases, and muscular problems. Furthermore, they use mice that lack immune system for understanding the cancer suppression methods. These experiments and researchers proved that the medical science animal testing laboratories can save millions of lives in the current century. Also, medical science invented immunization drugs against hepatitis, polio, mumps, and hundreds of other diseases through animal experiments. Nevertheless, animal testing helps domestic and farm animals to improve their lives. For example, in past, cats, dogs, cows, goats, and horses had high risk of rabies, tetanus, parvovirus, and infectious hepatitis. However, currently, veterinarians use different vaccines for such diseases or infections. Hence, animals can live longer staying healthy (Murnaghan, 2013).
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According to the reports of medical research organizations, currently, different laboratories are trying to develop technologies that can help to improve non-animal experiment procedures. These techniques can be used as the supplement to animal experiments. For example, computer modeling of genetic research and different vitro genetic experiments can help to reduce animal testing. However, scientists informed that such experiments do not have the exact capabilities to replace animal experiments; thus, it cannot be a complete alternative. Also, scientists are trying to reduce, replace, and refine alternative solutions for animal testing. They try to avoid using higher species animals. Also, they are refining test to understand the human organisms and their conditions (Trull, n.d.).
In the United States, different regulations are introduced to supervise and control the animal testing experiments. These laws and regulations follow the guidelines for animal security. Also, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) introduced different regulations that scientifically justify animal experiments. These regulations include the control of unnecessary experiments and pain relief precautions. Moreover, some government organizations regulate and provide federal funds to justified animal testing (Murnaghan, 2013).
Positive Points of Animal Testing
Animal testing has different benefits. For example, it helps scientist to find new drugs that develop and improve health. Also, it helps to ensure the safety and security of new drugs.
The invention of new drug is the major advantage of animal testing. It saves millions of people’s lives. Also, it protects children from different genetic problems. Nowadays, people can save their lives from deadly viruses by using different vaccines and antibiotics. Medical science can increase their confidence in new medicines by performing animal experiments. Moreover, they create specially bred animals for testing, which saves the lives of ordinary animals (Trull, n.d.).
Animal testing helps to improve the health of humans and animals. For example, people use different medicines and syrups in daily life to improve their health. These medicines provide people and animals with necessary amounts of nutrients, vitamins, and proteins. Scientists can conclude the positive results of medicine through animal experiment. Also, such experiments guide experts to identify the time limit of the medication process. In addition, currently, millions of women use different cosmetics that cannot be certified without testing. Nevertheless, scientists introduced vaccination of domestic pets and farm animals that increases their life (Trull, n.d.).
Safety of Drugs
In past centuries, people did not use animal testing. Medical experts invented different medicines, and people tried them when they were ill. Those medicines were partly successful. However, in some remarkable events, those medicines did not help people but produced side effects. As a result, hundreds of people died in past centuries by using uncertified drugs. Hence, the U.S. and other international medical organizations started to try these medicines on other mammals before using them on human beings. Most of these animals have similar construction of organism to human beings. Hence, these animal experiments help to ensure the safety and security of the mankind (Trull, n.d.).
Inaccurate Results of Alternative Methods
Different animal safety organizations oppose animal testing and demand to stop this practice. Hence, scientists tried different alternative ways to reduce the use of animals for experiments. For example, they performed different computer and machinery non-animal experiments to identify the main cause of genetic problems. However, they came to the conclusion that these alternatives do not show accurate results for disease or any other issues (Trull, n.d.).
Moreover, animals are better subjects for experiments. According to the research, laboratory mice have short lifespan. Most of them live no more than three years. Hence, it becomes easier for researchers to find out the health effects of a specific medicine during the whole lifespan of a mouse. Also, it helps to understand the genetic variations of mice in different generations. Such experiments are practically impossible to perform endangering a person’s life. Moreover, rats and mice are the best variants for long-term research, such as cancer or other deadly diseases (Trull, n.d.).
Ethics of Animal Testing
Different philosophers and renowned people believe that animal testing is ethically correct. Critics claimed that ethically, it is wrong to use human subjects in experiments. Hence, people perform experiments on a mouse to save the life of a human child. It is dangerous and unethical to use toxic unknown drugs on the human body instead of experimenting it on animals’ body. Also, scientists may break government laws or become criminals by experimenting dangerous drugs on human body. Hence, it is ethically correct to save human life by trying medicines on other mammals (Trull, n.d.).
Animal Testing and the Expenses of Healthcare Service
Animal testing processes are expensive. However, they reduce the expenses of healthcare service. For example, in the past centuries, it was hard to identify diseases. Physicians needed long time to diagnose diseases and find remedies. However, in the late 19th century, different scientists performed successful experiments and found out that animal experiments can help to identify diseases in a short time. Also, different vaccines and immune techniques help the human body to sustain its physical stability. Animal experiments helped these drugs and medications to improve its quality and features (Trull, n.d.).
Regulation of Animal Testing by Specific Laws
Different animal lover associations often call to stop animal testing. However, scientists have practically proved that these experiments do not take lives of ordinary animals. Most of these experiments are supervised and regulated by Federal Animal Welfare Acts (AWA). These acts ensure proper housing and experiment standards of animals such as enclosure sizes, average temperature, and access to clean food and water. Also, AWA performs regular inspections to find out and fix the drawbacks of animal testing laboratories. Nevertheless, these labs are voluntarily reviewed by animal care committees. Also, the government animal healthcare policies try their best to protect animals from unimportant testing. Hence, animal testing is correct, and they are protected by specific laws (Trull, n.d.).
Different religious books and holy scripts support human domination over animals. Christian, Muslim, and Jewish religions allow animal experimentations without creating unnecessary pains. Moreover, various religions support eating meat or fish. Hence, the experiments of animals for scientific purpose should be justified. Furthermore, many religions believe that animals cannot make moral judgment. Hence, they have been treated differently in different cultures for centuries. Also, most of the religions believe that animals should be used for human benefits; hence, animal testing is morally justified (Trull, n.d.).
Cosmetic and Other Healthcare Products Testing
The United States and China issued laws to test all of their cosmetics and healthcare products in the laboratory before they are allowed to be sold in the market. For example, China produces different repellents to protect people from mosquitoes and insects. These repellents may cause toxic problems in the human body. Hence, initially, they should be tested on animals. Similarly, some cosmetics can cause skin problems, allergies, or rash on the human body. Therefore, the respective product companies test their products in laboratories. Government authorities allow selling them in the market after the certification of animal testing laboratory. Thus, these labs save human lives (Trull, n.d.).
In conclusion, animal testing is important to improve the lifestyle of both human beings and animals. These experiments help experts to understand the positive and negative results of a medicine or drug on the human body. Also, such animal experiments include toxicology and cosmetic tests. Usually, experts perform these experiments on invertible animals, such as mice and rats as have a short lifespan. Hence, it becomes easier for scientists to understand the effects of different medicines on a mouse during its whole lifespan. Different medical organizations claim that animal testing helps experts to understand the main causes and find treatments of different viruses or viral diseases. In the past, people used animal testing to understand different medical theories, such as germ theory; thus, they improved vaccines and antibiotic treatments. However, uncertified medications caused different disasters in the previous centuries. Therefore, the federal government introduced laws that regulate and control animal testing.
Experts proved that these regulations have plenty of advantages helping scientists to find new medications for severe diseases. Also, it helps to improve the lives of human beings as well as farm and domestic animals such as dogs, cats, and cows. In addition, it evaluates the safety of new drugs. Scientists and governmental organizations produce certifications for successful drugs, and then they are allowed to be sold in markets. Moreover, scientists performed different experiments and came to the conclusion that non-animal testing does not provide truthful results. In addition, different philosophers and famous people believe that animal testing is ethically correct. They argue that it is justified to use a mouse to save the lives of hundreds of people. Nevertheless, animal testing is highly regulated by the federal authorities. Such authorities adopt different acts to protect and take care of laboratory animals.