Bullying: How it Affects us All and How Certains Rituals can Promote Bullying in Various Cultures
It is well-known fact that there are both strong and weak people in the world, somebody controls while others are under the control. Weak people are not capable to fight for their freedom because in the past they were bullied in school or even in their families. However, researches show that in the children are bullied the most at the early childhood. This paper is devoted to the issue of bullying, how it affects the future of a person, and whether there are rituals in some cultures that promote bulling the other people. What are the main categories of people or classes that are bullied; the results of recent research of the problem is going to be analyzed The explanation of the four basic principles of ecology and its connection with sociological factors of bullying will be evaluated.
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Bullying is an aggressive unwanted behavior among children that is the result of power imbalance. The problem of bullying lies in constant threat and some children are bullied through all the period of studying. Such children will have psychological problems in the future. Most of bullied children are those who seem to be different from the others. It may be either due to the difference in religious beliefs, color of skin, the richness of parents. Some children are bullied because they are too smart for their age or because of their weight. Sociologists have distinguished the main characteristics of the bullied person. It include such factors as insecure personality for example, when a child is shy, tends to cry often, and is easily offended; low peer acceptance; different children; physically weak person; a child may be bullied when he or she overprotected parents.
There are different types of bullying, however, nowadays, the most popular way of bullying is cyber bullying. It happens very often that parents do not want to realize that their child is cyber bullied, but statistics shows that they are mistaken:
- 43 % of all the children have been bullied at least once online;
- 70% of students report that they have witnessed cyber bullying;
- the most common way of cyber bullying in using the phone, because more than 80% of children use the cell phone;
- 68 % of children understand that cyber bullying is a serious problem;
- 81% of teenagers consider cyber bullying to be easier than private bullying a person;
- 90% of children who have witnessed cyber bullying have ignored it;
- Only 10% of those who are cyber bullied inform their parents;
- Girls are cyber bullied more often than boys;
- About 75% of children confess that they have visited a web site where another pupil is bullied;
- Those who are bullied are more likely to commit suicide.
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A person may be cyber bullied via cell phone, the Internet, using blogs or social networks, via e-mail or even text messages. Besides, there are different types of cyber bullying:
- Harassment, for example, when a person is being sent rude messages;
- Denigration is spreading untrue information about a person that is being bullied, posting it on a web site or in a social network, or sending this information to the others via e-mail or text messages;
- Flaming is a quarrel in the Internet using dirty vulgar language;
- Impersonation is a kind of cyber bullying when the account is broken and different untrue information is posted from the account of a person being bullied;
- Outing and Trickery means to share someone’s secrets or posting them in social networks or on some web pages. Or tricking someone to make him or her tell secrets;
- Cyber Stalking is a kind of cyber bullying when a person is being sent threatening messages or those which may make a person worry about his or her own safety.
The four principles
The ecologist Kelly has proposed the theory about four principles of preventive interventions. Those principles are:
- Functions within a social unit are interdependent (The Ecosystem Principle). Measuring outcomes without considering the interdependencies of participants or organizations can lead to erroneous or invalid conclusions. Interdependencies may contribute to program success or undermine it.
- The cycling of resources. Identifying efficiencies in resource use can be useful information for programs to plan for sustainability.
- The environment affects styles of adaptation. Understanding environments and programs includes understanding the adaptive skills individuals and organizations use to survive and thrive.
- The succession principle: the evolution of natural communities. Understanding how change has occurred in a community or organization over time makes it possible to anticipate the rate and direction of change in the future. (Kelly, p. 143)
All the principles, may be implemented into sociology and be the tool to fighting against bullying. On the other hand, it is difficult to conduct researches in the society because every individual is different, one cannot distinguish groups of people who have the same interests, feelings, look the same – there always will be slight differences. The principle of interdependence means that all members of the society should be taken into account. The point is that lack of some information might influence the results of the research. That is why investigating the question of bullying one should research not only those who bully and their victims, but also those who stay aside. Those children who do not participate in bullying are the part of that small society, one may say that they are the “viewers” as they observe the situation and make conclusions. The second principle will help the researchers to collect useful information that might be significant for future researches. The point is that the first two principles are based on observing and making up notes about the society.
The adaptation principle will be considered from two points of view: how the issue of growth and survival has affected people and how organizations, which face this problem, help others to adapt it and how the problem is solved on the Federal and State levels. The adaptation principle means how people and organizations adapt to survive and thrive.
Since the very beginning of the human civilization, people were building up their small social groups that later were developed to be societies. The point is that in the past people lived according to the jungle law where only the strongest survives. Nowadays, the modern civilization does not require to follow that law, however, those who are stronger than others, have more opportunities to live better than others. Such people are called “leaders” or successful people. Sometimes there are the cases when children get certain labels in school, which makes them to adapt to it. The problem is that if a person is labeled in early childhood, he or she will get used to it and will carry this label until the end of the life. The labeled individual try to behave in a way the society wants them to perform. For example, if a person is called a nerd, he or she should study all the time, be interested in natural sciences, study in one of the best universities of the country and become a scientist or a researcher. If those society beliefs are violated, a person becomes bullied. On the other hand, if a leader changes something in his or her behavior, the other members of the society try to change something in their style, they try to adapt to new circumstances. The situation with organization might seem to be different from the situation with individuals, however, it is quite the same. The situation of the modern world economic market is so that organizations function using the principle where the strongest survives. The situation is more difficult especially nowadays, because of the economic crisis in the world. Besides, every organization should adapt the needs of the local community and not the needs of an individual or the whole society. The adaptation principle is very significant when researching the issue of bullying, because it helps to understand the reasons why a person is bullied, moreover, this principle might help to distinguish those who are potential victims of bullying. The point is that weak, different people are those who suffer the most in the society because such individuals feel lost and lonely. Moreover, they have to go against their nature and to adapt to the habits of the society they are living in, to follow the rules set by the leader of the society.
The succession principle shows that some events of the past may influence the development of the society, community or even the organization. The history of humanity contains many examples of events that have influenced the further development not only of some individuals but also the future of the whole society; those events have formed the modern civilization as it exists nowadays. The Renaissance period was the one of cultural movement, the period full of art masterpieces created by the geniuses. This period lasted from the 14th century till the end 17th century and the masterpieces created at those times, still inspire modern architects, artists, writers and musicians.
The Theoretical Solution
There are two approaches to the issue of bullying: empowerment and prevention. The empowerment approach means that an individual is encouraged morally to become better, to increase his or her educational, economic, political, and social strength. On the one hand, this approach is better than prevention, because it will help an individual to become self-confident, to gain some strength, to be not afraid to fight. On the other hand, there are two disadvantages. First, a person can do nothing when he or she is bullied because of religious beliefs or color of skin – because this is something that cannot be changed. The second disadvantage is that a person may fail to protect him or herself and lose all the hopes to become better. Human beings tend to give up after the first try and, in the end, this situation may break the person. The prevention means that children are taught about the consequences of bullying and they are explained how it might affect the life of the others. On the one hand, this approach is better than the previous one, however, children, especially teenagers, tend not to listen to the adults; that is why such talk and discussions will result into nothing. That is why the best solution is to combine those two approaches to decrease the level of bullying in modern society.
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This bullying essay was aimed to show the harmfulness of bullying and to explain it using the four principles. The first principle is the intervention principle, and it might be used in different forms, for example, when a group of people intend to affect an individual. This happens when a family tends to choose a college for a teenager. In this case, parents are using the preventive method explaining how good the college is, how valuable is the diploma of the college. The organizational intervention differs from the intervention that was explained above. The organizational intervention means to make the process of intervention more effective. Nowadays, organizational intervention means particular trainings, coaching, time management and other techniques that help employers to work better. Social intervention is the type of intervention when most of people are included – during such intervention government influences the life of the whole society. The brightest example of the social intervention is the increase of taxes. Such kind of intervention influences the life of every individual of the society, as well as the whole society. The main idea of all three kinds of intervention is that it influences every member of the society or the community; the intervention does not mean only negative innovations but it may also bring something good in the life of every society and influence the life of the future generations.