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Communication and Media: Answering Questions

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Q 1: Media literacy focuses on the ability of individuals to rely on their personal background while watching movies. Specifically, the availability of moral information that is enclosed in human consciousness allows people to perceive values and messages delivered by media. Personal judgments about media messages are essential because they provide people with a deeper understanding of the meaning of the themes. Therefore, when a person watches a movie, the moral and ethical awareness prevents him/her from considering the spiritual stance of the narrative evoking emotional experiences (Duffy and Turow 21). In contrast, the absence of the emotional dimension can lead to systematic, senseless exercises resulting in intellectual and spiritual degradation. As an example, I am personally aware of the negative influence of media while watching a movie or a TV show repeatedly. Some of the media products, such as sitcoms and other TV shows, develop consumerist tendencies among the audiences. These programs should not influence the audience’s consciousness because they can have negative consequences for self-determination and individuality.

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Q 2: Due to the fact that media literacy identifies the moral awareness of individuals, it should be stressed that it takes much time to become mediate literate to be able to make reasonable and objective conclusions about specific media messages. In this respect, Duffy and Turow state that taking a moral stand that certain messages are more constructive for society than others…is a multidimensional perspective based on thorough analyses of the media landscape (23). Therefore, recognizing moral decisions is essential for understanding how media can affect society through media. The highest level of awareness is the one that allows individuals to understand that media literacy can provide an insight into the impact of media on society. This is of particular concern to the importance of social responsibility for the films and shows watched in front of society.

Q 3: In the essay, Twitchell analyzes adult culture which has been shaped by advertisement in society and culture. The author also defines the growing consumerist and commercial tendencies in modern holidays. In particular, Twitchell mentions New Year’s Eve, which is associated with adolescent substance abuse accompanied by television shows. Other events refer to the Academic Awards ceremony, Cinco de Mayo, Superbowl Sunday, and Mothers Day. These events are politically and religiously predetermined and are associated with commercial interests. The description of Christmas, however, is represented as the festival of the festival because of its deep historical meaning; therefore, it offers rich images and stereotypes for media to develop new meanings and symbols for society (Duffy and Turow 39). It should be stressed that Twitchell’s essay fails to examine the effects of grassroots and generated events, including Black Friday, which is not perceived as State Pattys Day. Traditional holidays are not sufficient for society, and, as a result, the media invents new holidays and events that do not relate to religion but are still observed with the same eagerness and accuracy.

Q 4: The audience takes an active role in shaping advertising campaigns. Therefore, the advertisers often consider it essential to use timing as the leading factor for attracting the audience. In particular, it is possible to restore the images from the past to emphasize the traditional and ritual aspects of events, such as the American Dream or other meaningful concepts. At the same time, modern campaigns rely on the target audience that also identifies the main aspects of media advertising. Timing is essential for identifying seasonal events and developing new ideas and advertising messages. Aside from events and celebrations, national events influence the timing frames of the advertisement as well. For instance, it is possible to advertise products and goods on Thanksgiving Day Eve.

Q 5: Active involvement of holidays in the marketing and advertising sphere can alter the message and meanings of traditions. People’s attitude to holidays and celebration has also been changed to the emphasis placed on marketing orientation. In this respect, marketers resort to seasonal advertising to turn holidays and events into consumerism. In this respect, social media has developed a new form of consumer relationship its connection with the discovery of products. During the holiday season, the new consumers are more likely to buy new products that are seasonally predetermined. The task of marketers is to consider the most valuable sources of target audience data that allow them to identify consumer interests as well as predict the intent during the holiday season. When applying this information to reveal campaigns, marketers can deliver a personalized message directed at specific holiday products.

Q 6: It can be acknowledged that the events of 2003 were considered as a false attempt of the Bush administration to justify its decision to declare war on Iraq, as well as a media device by means of which this decision has been covered with false statements. Therefore, the Bush administration resorted to propaganda while justifying their actions against Iraq. The media coverage presented the information in a different light to make the audience believe in the reasonableness of these military activities. According to the New York Times, the media coverage of the events in Iraq was not too dramatic, as it should have been. Their justifications were also followed by an inadequate assessment of the information delivered through media channels. In this respect, the new media was not only trusted and accepted by the audience but also contained information premised on spurious intelligence. With regard to these aspects, the issue of privacy raises the issues of democracy and the negative role of media in promoting the transparent and just exchange of ideas and messages. The article by Rice proves that message and perceptions of the 2003 war were distorted for the purpose of expanding the impact of the United States on the entire world.

Q 7: On the one hand, people are affected by radio, television, and newspapers, and the information delivered through these media channels. The validity and reliability of the news have a direct impact on the way people make conclusions and assumptions about specific issues. On the other hand, the choice of media channels through which they perceive information matters as well because not all of the sites draw news from valid sources. In the context of the 2003 war and the social media surrounding the case, Kumar’s arguments can be somewhat distorted because some of the people shape their subjective opinion about the events in Iraq and rely on the sources that criticize the U. S. government’s decision to enter Iraq.

Q 8: As soon as media took advantage in disclosing economic, political, and cultural events, contemporary sociology has abandoned the analysis of news institutions and journalistic organizations. Instead, the focus has been made on the evaluation of synergy between society and media. In this respect, Klinenberg refers to the synergistic mode of production as it is represented in the light of constraints that editors have to overcome to manage the pressure imposed by market, space, and time. To support the issue, Klinenberg assumes, Convergence news companies expect their journalistic staff to be flexible and fast, and both editors and corporate managers are already revaluing their workers, considering media skills in their story assignments as well as hiring and retention decisions (29). Therefore, there are a great number of organizations that operate independently from others, such as CNN or reputable newspapers. Although these sources often stand on behalf of the government, they are more reliable than those that advocate the position of a private organization.

Q 9: Certainly, many journalists and editors express their concerns with increased labor demands because of the convergence between organizations and media companies. The convergence, however, is directed at the necessity to produce new products and reduce the time allowed for reporting, researching, and writing. In this respect, the main reasons for increased flexibility refer, first of all, to the necessity to adjust to new devices and technological novelties of communication. Indeed, working in a virtual environment s is a new challenge for journalists because they should fight not only for authenticity and reliability but also for the ability to present information to the new target audience that is socially and culturally predetermined.


Q 10: While enumerating the major media developments, the role of the World Wide Web should not be underestimated. However, Klinenberg emphasizes the importance of the new media devices that have been developed as a result of the emergence of virtual space. As such, the appearance of the local news websites has become an alternative version of traditional newspapers highlighting the recent news and events in a specific region. These websites have outstripped the conventional means of distributing information to the population. Alternative means of news transfer has also changed the process of news creation. Specifically, the production of news is now focused on active online communication and content writers. Journalists, therefore, should be more flexible in delivering news online to make sure that their article has reached the audience prior to the published versions.

Q 11: The main purpose of the media is not to inform the audience about a specific event but to make them believe that this news is valid, and there are no other interpretations of it. Moreover, media organizations seek to impose their meaning and make people believe that this is exactly what they need to know. Apparently, this explanation can be enclosed in the meaning produced by Postman and Powers who resort to the concept of delusions of the television news industry (Duffy and Turow 49). In this respect, the authority to establish the priorities is assigned to the news media producers but not to the audience. Media communication is aimed at distributing the information that fits social, cultural, and political realities in the country. For instance, because the U.S. administration propagates democracy and freedom, these concepts come to the fourth of all media channels to persuade the population of the transparency of reporting information. However, this approach cannot be called genuine because it fails to provide valid and objective representations of facts.

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Q 12: The emergence of news media culture emphasizes the concept of visualization and its dominance in transferring information to the audience. Specifically, most of the new ways of delivering the message is supported by visual devices, such as the Internet, television, and online communication. Supporting new information with images enhances the audience’s comprehension of the news (Turow 446). As a result, the prevalence of visual images has suppressed other means of information transfer, such as books, journals, articles, novels, which are rarely discussed on television. The importance of visualization is enormous, but this is not the only reason for decreased popularity of old-fashioned media devices. People are still eager to read, but they rarely refer to the hard copy of the published version. Such a contradiction proves the tangible shift in understanding information in a textual version.

Q 13: Out of four features of media industry mediation, representations, stereotypes, and hegemony versus pluralism, representation and stereotypes could be considered to be the most powerful in understanding media culture today. To begin with, when it comes to representations, the emphasis should be placed on the way media represents cultural identities. For instance, in the light of globalization, racial equality and cultural diversity are on the current agenda because they have a potent impact on the business environment and international relations. For instance, people originating from ethnic minorities should not feel limitations while applying for a job. Rather, they should be open to equal opportunities while choosing a profession. Stereotypes form another outcome produced by media culture. Many problems, issues, and events highlighted on television and the Internet are subject to a prejudiced perception on the part of the audience. Media can create stereotypes of appearance, particularly when it concerns Hollywood movies. For instance, the movies Hancock and I Are Legend, position Will Smith as a positive hero fighting for justice and freedom. These movies clearly show that the current stereotype of the black hero is no negative anymore, as it was considered before.

Q 14: The main benefit of the current copyright regime in the United States lies in the possibility to protect equality and welfare among the population. The concept of privacy and authenticity is also essential for journalists and media producers as it gives them the opportunity to protect themselves from plagiarism. However, the major shortcoming of the copyright regime is that it is often regarded as a limited monopoly controlled by the government to impose taxations on independent journalists. It is also a way of increasing penalties on the violators. However, both political parties agree with the idea that the copyright regime restricts creativity significantly and prevents journalists from presenting their ideas freely. Therefore, American society could be better without the copyright regime.


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