Because of its geographical position in the solar belt, Algeria is known for the abundance of solar energy and has ability to use this generosity of natural energy effectively, guaranteeing purity of environment and development of technologies, using renewable in the region. In this work the analysis and an assessment of potential of solar energy in the province Gardenia (To the South from Algeria) to help users to solar energy. The database of components of sunlight was used for this purpose.
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The data presented in the document in comparison with other data supplied with the known regional and international organizations such as the solar Atlas for the Mediterranean and NASA. Frequency and hourly distribution of components of sunlight specify that the area is noticed as an economic zone and favorable for solar installations, such as the solar VOLUME of PLASMA and technology of concentration of solar energy (CSP). In addition to sunlight these two functions, namely, an index of clearness and part of the sun were investigated; results specify that the place has a clear sky in most in a season. In general results show that the area can use solar energy as the promising decision for traditional power sources.
Available solar potential of opening of Algeria: the of the market of the electric power and favorable legal framework to bring to that Algerian photovoltaic market of the promise to be the most important area.
Among the biggest solar area in the world:
Light duration + 2000 h/year or 3900 hours/year, on high lands and on Sahara,
Energy received about 1 m2 = 5 kW · ч / day, about 1700 kWh/m2/year in Northern and 2263 kWh/m2/year in the south.
Ways of production of solar energy in Algeria will be divided into two separate events:
- Photovoltaic solar energy:
Photovoltaic solar energy is collected and transformed to the electric power directly from a sunlight, using photovoltaic groups. The forecast of development of energy which has to be reached to 2030, is more than 37% of national electricity generation, is divided into two periods:
- Full production 800 SEC to 2020.
- Capacity is 200 MWp a year 2021-2030
The solar thermal:
Solar thermal is a transformation of sunlight to thermal energy. This transformation can directly be used for heating of buildings, for example), or indirectly (for example, production of steam to conduct turbine generators and, therefore, to make the electric power).[footnoteRef:1] [1: Shaltout, A. H. Hassan, and A. M. Fathy, “Study of the solar radiation over Menia,” ]
Algeria created green pulse to begin the ambitious program of development of renewables (REn) and efficiency of use of energy. This program is based on the strategy concentrated on development and expansion of use of inexhaustible resources such as solar energy versatile to develop power sources and prepares Algeria tomorrow. Through a combination of initiatives and acquisition of knowledge, Algeria it is occupied during a new era of stable use of energy.
The program consists of installation to 22 000 MW of the generating power from renewable sources between 2011 and 2030, which 12 000 MW developed to satisfy domestic demand for electricity and 10 000 MW intended for export. This last parameter depends on demand which provides long life with reliable partners, and also attractive external financing.
In this program renewables are located in the center of power and economic policy of Algeria: it is expected that about 40% of the electricity made for internal consumption will be from renewables to 2030. Algeria really seeks to become the large player in production of electricity from solar photovoltaic and solar energy which will be drivers of sustainable economic development to advance new model of growth. [footnoteRef:2] [2: Al-Mohamad, “Global, direct and diffuse solar-radiation in Syria,” ]
The national capacities is in the field of renewable strongly in the power of solar energy. Algeria believes that this power source as opportunity and the lever for economic and social development, in particular by means of creation of wealth and labor-consuming industries. Potential for a wind, biomass, geothermal and relatively are very small energy of the hydroelectric power. It, however, doesn't exclude possibility of management of repeated projects of development of a wind power station and pilot projects, biomass and geothermal energy.[footnoteRef:3] [3: Trabea, “Analysis of solar radiation measurements at Al-Arish area, North Sinai, Egypt,”]
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The program of renewable energy and efficiency of use of energy is organized in five heads:
- Opportunity to establish on power activity,
- Program of efficiency of use of energy,
- Capacity had to construct, program,
- Scientific researches,
- Incentives and the regulating measures.[footnoteRef:4] [4: Al-Hinai and S. M. Al-Alawi, “Typical solar radiation data for Oman]
Projects for internal production of electricity from renewables will be carried out at three stages:
- In the first stage, during the period between 2011 and 2013, it will be devoted to introduction of pilot projects to check various available technologies,
- In the second phase (2014 - 2015) will note the beginning of the program of expansion,
- The last phase, between 2016 and 2020, will be devoted to large-scale programs of expansion.
These phases - part of strategy of Algeria which seeks to develop original solar energy along with the program of training and capitalization which eventually will allow use of local development and creation of an effective know-how, including in areas of development and management of the project. In the program of renewable energy to satisfy internal energy needs will make some thousands of straight lines and indirect workplaces.
Today, energy needs of Algeria are satisfied almost only hydrocarbons, especially natural gas. Other forms of energy are mobilized only when natural gas can't be used. In the long term expansion of national structure of consumption of energy can affect the existing Balance of supply and demand on this power source.
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Level of the volumes of natural gas made in domestic market will be 45 billion m3 in 2020 and 55 billion m3 in 2030. Other volumes of the gas intended for export to help with financing of a national economy. Consumption of electricity as expect, will reach 75 - 80 billion kW · h in 2020 and 130 - 150 billion kW · h in 2030. Large integration of renewable sources in power balance is the main problem for preservation of resources of a fossil, diversification of electricity generation and systems which promote a sustainable development.
All these reasons justify strong integration, today, renewables in the long term energy strategy, providing an important role in energy saving and efficiency of use of energy. In this last aspect will be, through appropriate control of speed on which the requirement grows, the best investments had to satisfy energy needs. The program of efficiency of use of energy has to reach the following, mainly:
- The improved thermal insulation;
- Development of solar water heating;
- Wide use of low lamps of consumption of energy;
- Replacement with all mercury sodium lamp of a lamp;
- Advance of LPG and NG fuel;
- Development of a cogeneration;
- Conversation on power plant a simple cycle in power plant with the combined cycle, everywhere, where the possible;
- Development of Solar cooling systems
- Water desalting, using renewables.
On development of renewable energy in the program there is a national character, affecting the majority of industries. Its introduction under the auspices of the Ministry of Fuel and Energy, is opened for and public and private operators.
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The government is ready to promote use of renewable, is also reflected in establishment of the Commission for the renewable energy responsible for coordination of national efforts in this area. This document which lists the Algerian projects and aspirations from the point of view of a sustainable development and "environmentally safe renewable energy", is part of this engine for advance and development of renewable energy and efficiency of use of energy.
This analysis is intended to help engineers and designers with Guard?a assessment area of potential of solar energy. Annual cumulative sunlight is important where it is about 2118 (kWh/m2) of global sunlight and 2067 (kW/m2) for DNI sunlight. Daily sunlight also considerable; its development carry out maximum 1018 (W/m2) for sunlight of DNI and 1268 (W/m2) global sunlight. NASA SSE model and support "the solar Atlas of the Median" of our measurements as representative; the analysis of density of distribution of an index of clearness specified that in the range of 0.7-0.8 is the most dominating which also corresponds to the NASA model and reflects clear conditions of the sky in most in a season. Hourly distribution is especially interesting to define an economic zone for solar installations where it was obvious that the territory of Gharda?a has this feature.[footnoteRef:5] [5: Alnaser, B. Eliagoubi, A. Al-Kalak et al., “First solar radiation atlas for the Arab world.
The results presented in the newspaper show that solar energy in Gharda?a is the promising decision for traditional power sources and can be a starting point of solar energy in the region. Expenses are designed to potentially difficult $120 billion on life cycle of the project, and the beginning of obstacles appeared - the contract for $220 million with the centrotherm Photovoltaic’s AG company (the German company) for solar plant about the coastal city of Rouiba was recently cancelled. Defenders of environment can take some consolation in reports that the Ministry of Energy still intends to construct factory in Rouiba with other consortium, despite 2014, the objectives can't be achieved.[footnoteRef:6] [6: Trabea, “Analysis of solar radiation measurements at Al-Arish area, North Sinai, Egypt,”]
Very few main projects will be finished in time or the budget, but in case of cancellation of the contract and ranging of Business of group of the World Bank among the worst on world show that will be expensive more difficult forward. On the other side of a coin nevertheless obviously, real commitment to the project and the last EU-Algerian to the draft agreement on energy will look for long investments, transfer of technology and technical assistance on energy, including renewable energy everywhere.
They will also have to avoid some difficulties suffered by hydrocarbon sector where fears of resource nationalism, regional security and stability, corruption and the inept management were only softened with quality and amount of the Algerian hydrocarbons strong (though deterioration of the existing infrastructure and Europe reduced internal deliveries.
Now, the export requirement about the Algerian solar energy and the small existing infrastructure, a situation differs, and in Algeria probably it is necessary to work heavier to convince investors and partners for them.